transplant. If she gets it in time, she` will live a long, healthy life. Without it, your child has, at most, one year to live. You put her on a
heart donor waiting list, full of hope.` ` 1) According to the U.S. government site organdonor.gov, ` ` an average of 18 people die
each day waiting for transplants that can` t take place because of the shortage of donated organs. And that number is on the rise.` 2) The important thing is that there is a much demand for human organs which are required to conduct transplants for saving many human life. Serious problem is a lack of supply of human organs. Here, the problem of demand for human organs and supply of human organs emerges. In other words, the market which consists of demand for human organs and supply of human organs emerges to save human life.
Taking this situation into consideration, selling human organs is reasonable and justified. Now I look at organ donation and transplantation in the United States. ` ` Organ transplantation offers a unique chance to extend and/or save lives and improve the
health of those in need. The number of organ transplants has grown steadily over the past 65 years, with more than 750,000 transplants conducted in the United States since 1988. However, the need vastly outweighs the number of available organs.
Approximately 20 people on the national organ transplant waiting list die each day, while every 10 minutes a new person is added to that list.`` ` 3)
From above arguments, the important thing is that demand for organs exceeds supply of organs. Therefore, this situation leads to the higher price for organs and bring huge profit for those who sell human organs. The market mechanism works.
People who hope for extending or prolonging their life are tempted to pay much money for buying organs used for transplant.
In particular, we can see many donors in many developing or newly emerging counties. The main reason is that donors hope to get much money to support their daily life.
Let me present one example in Philippines. ` ` In fact, there is some evidence that the financial incentive works. Organ sales are
permitted in the Philippines as long as the donor recipients are native. A Philippine organ recipient describes the domestic market: ` Nobody in these parts ,` she said, ` would donate a kidney without getting paid.` And the market is thriving.
This recipient stated that the prices for organs are going up.` ` 4)
Concerning the selling human organs, most important thing is that selling and buying must be conducted through perfectly legal
process. Legal agreement between buyer and seller(donor) must be made concerning the price, health condition of donor, condition of the organ which is expected to transplant and the blood type of buyer and donor. A donor should not sell organ to buyer without legal agreement made between them. This is justified from the legal, moral and ethical point of view.
From the above arguments, I believe that selling human organs should be legal.
Sources: 1), 2), 4) Selling your organs: Should it be legal? Do you own yourself? ( https://www.forbes.com.)
3) National Survey of Organ Donation Attitudes and Practices, 2019 ( https:// www.organdonor.gov.)
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I. Contradictory for the Poor
Proponents of the Human Organ Market likely think the poor will benefit from the legalization. But this is not the case. From a study in India, it's clear that organ donation averages around to $1,000/month, nowhere near enough for the monthly cost of living. The fact that the same source notes 80% of donors do not recommend selling, the irrationality of the desperation is clearly shown. Logically your health would be worsened, making it more difficult to keep working and managing your family. Indeed, even in a legal example within Iran, the only country that legalizes human organs' market, proves that the poor do not benefit from being able to sell their organs. Firstly, poor information from the market dealers makes it unlikely that the poor will get a deal. Even the government could only enforce a lowly price of 4,600$ per organ. The writer notes that 70% of the Iranian organ vendors are still poor. And the nurse notes that the black market is not prevented, only further encouraged and now officially sanctioned. The transfer of wealth and inequality is a notable problem as nothing is fixed.
Furthermore, the prices existing for victims who need the organs will arise as a result. The same source explains, "currently, while hospital fees may be large, the donor system ensures that prices for organ stay low. If we are to legalize commodification, there is no guarantee that supply will meet the demand, the impetus which lowers prices." The poor will no longer be able to pay as well because organs now have higher costs that solely the rich will be able to afford. This goes to explain why illegal organ trafficking will increase, as there is still yet a greater demand for free organs. The six billion people currently living in countries with a corruption problem go to infer that legalization would completely fail. As such, no matter what system we have, the poor will always be exploited, and never resolve the problem of their poverty.
II. Human dignity
Though we have our rights for liberty, life, and the pursuit of happiness, we cannot waive the right to liberty. The human body is an invaluable asset and while you are free to use it as you wish, to sell it sends the wrong message. You are saying your body and your potential autonomy is worth money. But people should not be able to put you in jail merely through bribery. Money, a temporary materialistic ideal, cannot match up to the transcendent ideals of life and freedom. Not only so, but you are also saying it is worth a price only the rich can buy. It would be illogical for a poor victim to support another poor seller. So you would be reducing the power of selflessness provided by the ability to provide organs for free! You reduce the humans to a means as an end, rather than highlighting the altruistic and virtuous nature of men we all should strive for. With both of these combined, I advocate for illegalization to discourage people from selling off themselves. Think of how slavery is outlawed, and we don't allow people to sell their liberty off to another. While people are capable of making their own decisions, depression and urgency can cause a person to lack the true autonomy to make a well-informed decision. Compounded by the selfish greed of the rich man, it is impossible to justify the selling of human organs from a moral basis.
Many proponents of the organ market worry that the problem of organ shortage will never be solved. But the opt-out program in many countries has resolved the issue already. Noted from Stanford.edu, Austria's donation acceptance is 90%, compared to the US's 15%. It is only logical that most people would go with the status quo. To avoid complete loss of liberty as proponents argue, many family members can overwrite the decision. Nevertheless, Spain with the same system has the highest donation rate per million overall. Though some worry that the ability to ask for permission is very difficult, there has been proposed a two-step plan to resolve the problem. Firstly, you ask for permission to maintain the body for the donation. Next, the authorization to donate would be asked only after the given time to process the death. By allowing thoughtful decisions, we can resolve the problem of emotional influence. As we combine opt-out with educating people about the organ donation possibility, there is no doubt that the shortage of organs will be solved without having to put our human dignity at risk.
As you can see the market for organs is illogical and simply cannot be implemented. Now onto Con.
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9spaceking: sorry, I meant "onto pro". Do you agree that the poor are taken advantage of when organs can be sold?
sunbright: I believe the poor are not taken advantage of when organs can be sold. In many casesTheir organs
sunbright: I missed. I try again. I believe that the poor are not taken advantage of when organs are sold. Generally speaking, they are not better health condition and face poor-nourished. Therefore, their organs are not sold in higher prices compared with those among the rich people.
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First is about ` ` 1.Contradictory for the Poor.` `
I believe that income disparity between the rich and the poor causes serious health disparity between them. In this dire situation,
there is high possibility that the poor can not buy healthy and well-functioning human organs because they have not enough money to get it. Is there any way to help them? Con argues that ` ` nothing is fixed.` ` However, I believe there is one possible way to save the life of the poor. That is the intervention of public institutions to monitor the market for human organs.
This policy contributes to conducting selling and buying of human organs reasonably and effectively.
However, unfortunately as Con points out, corruption problem exists in many countries. Government officials ignore the black
market surrounding the market for human organs. They receive much money from people involved in the black market.
However, by enforcing the power of law and citizens we can fight against corruption.
First is to end impunity. The most important thing is that effective law enforcement is essential to break the cycle of impunity. 1)
And ` ` successful enforcement approaches are supported by a strong legal framework, law enforcement branches and an independent and effective court system.` ` 2) Second is to promote transparency and access to information.
` ` Countries successful at curbing corruption have a long tradition of government openness, freedom of the press, transparency and access to information. Access to information increases the responsiveness of government bodies, while simultaneously having a positive effect on the levels of public participation in a country.` ` 3)
These two policies are urgently required to promote reasonable market for human organs.
Second is about Con`s second argument: ` ` 2. Human Dignity` `
When a person faces extreme poverty and serious diseases, as Con points out, a person finds it very difficult to ` ` make a well-informed decision.` ` Coping with this situation, I believe that strict rules or law which contributes to helping a person cope with the situation must be introduced by the government. In this case care-worker and medical assistant who are given the right to administer their work by the public institution are urged to advice and recommend a reliable donor for a person who is hoping to buy human organ. To protect human dignity and the right to live selling and buying of human organs should be conducted legally and reasonably with the intervention of public institutions.
Third is about Con` s third argument: ` 3.` Implementation` `
Con argues that ` ` there is no doubt that the shortage of organs will be solved without having to put our human dignity at risk.` `
The important thing is that market for human organs must be operated and conducted without violating human dignity and the
right to live as long as possible for all people of the world. We must find possible ways to realize this purpose.
I believe that cooperation and trust among public institutions, the general public and medical institutions based on the power of law and free flow of information are urgently required for promoting and keeping fair, reasonable and reliable market for human
organs. Now on to Con.
Sources: 1), 2), 3 ) How to stop corruption (https://www.transparency.org.)
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9spaceking: do you have any evidence that your legality framework would actually work?
9spaceking: in addition, what do you have to say about Iran's failure?
sunbright: I try to challenge the question about Iran`s failure. Government of Iran enforces the price of human organs in the market. However, unfortunately the price sometimes rises so high because black market and the greedy men exist. We must admit as long as there are people who want to buy human organs in spite of their higher prices, black market and the greedy men play a role in conducting the deal. Unfortunately, those who can`t buy human organ are destined to suffer from the disease or to die. This is their destiny.
sunbright: I try to answer the question about legality framework. I understand that legality is an agreement. So if the agreement between a buyer and a seller is made concerning the deal over human organs, legality works. Here I look at the case of the U.S.. In general, selling human organs is banned by law. However, some people have shown unsatisfactory attitude. `` The ruling came about at the end of 2011, in a decision to an October 2009 lawsuit brought by a group of cancer patients, parents and bone-marrow- donation advocates against the government over the federal law banning the deal.
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In this situation human organs turn to ` goods` which are transacted on the market. But the important thing is that they are different from other ` goods` like daily necessities, cars, foods or electric appliances. Transacted and transplanted human organs are closely linked to help human beings survive and extend their life possibly longer. Therefore, the deal over buying and selling of human organs must be conducted fairly by taking legal, lawful, ethical and moral perspectives into consideration between
buyer and seller. So, in some cases, the intervention of public institutions is required to proceed the deal fairly, reasonably and morally. I look at the case of China. ` ` State media are quoting a top health official as saying China will phase out the practice of
taking organs from executed prisoners. The official Xinhua News Agency quoted Vice Health Minister as saying that organ donations from condemned prisoners will be abolished within five years. It said hospitals will rely instead on a national organ donation system that is being set up.` ` 1)
` ` Different scholars have different views about the precise scope and extent of the regulation required, but most support the
requirements that organ sellers give valid consent , are paid a reasonable fee, and are provided with adequate medical care.` ` 2)
For example, Taylor says that ` ` at minimum- a market should require that vendors give their informed consent to the sale of their kidneys, that they not be coerced into selling their kidneys for a third party and that they receive adequate post- operative
care.` ` 3) The important thing is that ways and methods which are reasonably acceptable and agreeable for buyers and sellers of
human organs must be explored.
Erin and Harris suggest that` ` a market in human organs should have the following features: 1. It is limited to a particular geopolitical area, such as a state or the European Union, with only citizens or residents of that area being allowed to sell or to
receive organs. 2. There is a central public body responsible for making (and funding) all purchases and for allocating organs
fairly in accordance with clinical criteria. Direct sales are banned.
3. Prices are set at a reasonably generous level to attract people voluntarily into the market. Features (1) and (2) combined are
supposed to rule out exploitative organ trafficking from poorer countries, while the ban on direct sales and allocation by a central
agency ensure that the organs go not to those most able to pay, but to those in most need.` ` 4)
There are many people who can not buy human organs and not transplant them because they are poor or have less opportunity to get them. They may be destined to face death. I believe that we must think about death seriously in the age of Coronavirus-19.
BJ Miller argues that ` ` your death is not the end of your body. The chemical bonds that held you together at the molecular level
continue to break in the minutes and months after you die. The energy that once animated the body does not stop.` ` 5)
So, human body and organs are essentially different from other ` goods` .
From my three round arguments and cross-examination, I believe that selling and buying human organs should be conducted
in legally justified manner between seller and buyer.
Sources: 1) China to phase out prisoner organ donation, https://www.nbcnews.com.
2), 3), 4) The Sale of Human Organs, https://plato.stanford. edu.
5) What is death? by BJ Miller, The New York Times International Edition, December22,2020
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sunbright: I try to answer one of the problems raised by Con in Round 3. Since 1999, the government of Iran has created a program which sets a official fixed price of 4,600 dollars for the deal of human organs. 1) However, unfortunately, many people in Iran were unsatisfied with the price. For them it was too low to make their life better. So many of them showed less intertest in selling their organs like kidneys. From this situation the black market emerged. (Continued to the Comment Section).
sunbright: I try to answer the problem regarding India raised by Con in Round 3. I believe case of India reflects the harsh situation in the country. There are many people who face extreme poverty. So they are compelled to accept the very low price of their organs to make a living or to eliminate the heavy burden of their debt which they must repay how hard they feel dissatisfied. (www.endslavery.va/content/)
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